It is the psychological equivalent of the chicken and the egg. Which comes first: success or motivation?
For years, the general assumption has been that the more we can help motivate students, the more likely they are to be successful. But is the basic equation of “more motivated = more likely to achieve success” always true? In other words, what if reversing the equation actually made it more powerful?
What does the research say?
It’s fair to say that one could write a whole literature review on this topic, which is sadly beyond the scope of this blog. So, we thought we’d pick a few studies that give a good flavour of the research. Here is what they say…
A recent large scale meta-analysis looking at 132 studies explored the relationship between motivation and reading achievement in students. The researchers found that motivation did have an impact on reading achievement. But crucially, when tracked over time, they found a stronger impact from reading achievement on motivation.
Essentially, this means that achieving success in reading early led to higher motivation, and much more so than high motivation led to better reading performance.
This large scale study tracked students from Germany, England, Australia and Japan to explore the impact between emotions and maths achievement. The researchers described their findings as “bi-directional”: the more students enjoyed and took pride in their work, the higher their grades were. But the reverse was also true — the more success students had, the more pride and enjoyment they felt.
They also found a similar relationship for negative emotions. The more negative emotions that students experienced (i.e. anger, anxiety, shame, boredom and helplessness), the worse their grades were. And it’s fair to assume that the worse their grades were, the more negative emotions students would experience afterwards.
How does this link to Rosenshine’s Principles of Instruction?
Rosenshine’s 10 Principles of Instruction have become increasingly popular in education, as they provide a good overview and clear guidelines as to how we can help students learn. Two of them (“present information in small steps” and “obtain a high success rate”) underline the importance of ensuring students experience success in order to develop their confidence and motivation.
Combined with the above studies, this would suggest that although increased motivation can indeed lead to increased success, the reverse (i.e. success leads to motivation) may be a) more powerful, b) more sustainable and c) more achievable.
This is because achieving early success can trigger the start of a positive cycle:
Do we want competence or confidence?
Through our work both with elite athletes and in education, we often get requests to help individuals improve their confidence. However, this is often not what people really need. Actually, what they really want is to help improve their competence. If they do that, they will also improve their confidence.
Equally, if we just improve someone’s confidence, it doesn’t necessarily improve their competence (see basically every bad but confident X-factor audition for proof). The same is true of motivation to an extent. Yes it can lead to increased performance. But it doesn’t always. And yet, if someone achieves success, they are more likely to achieve longer-lasting motivation.
So where does this leave things like Growth Mindset and Resilience?
If we take this to its logical conclusion and prioritise achieving success over “motivational interventions”, what does this mean for popular strategies such as growth mindset and resilience? Do we even need them?
It is important not to throw the baby out with the bath water. Both the studies listed earlier in this blog do talk about the bi-directional nature of the relationship between success and motivation. So, let’s briefly take a look at growth mindset and resilience to see how they could compliment the “success to motivation” relationship:
What does this mean for education?
The fact that success leads to motivation much more than motivation leads to success is good news for those in education. This lends itself to a number of concrete strategies, which include:
On reflection, the chicken or egg comparison isn’t quite right. When it comes to success and motivation, it shouldn’t be viewed as either/or. It is clearly a combination of both, each serving their own purpose.
However, it is illuminating to consider the powerful impact that starting with success can have. Potentially, it can free up time spent on failed motivational interventions, and lead to longer-lasting and more robust motivation over time.